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They carried out strong resistance to American incursions in the decades after the American Civil War, in a series of "Indian Wars", which were frequent up until the 1890s. forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, and established reservations for them in many western states. Contemporary Native Americans today have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have sovereignty or independence from the government of the United States. citizens were granted citizenship in 1924 by the Congress of the United States.The coming of the transcontinental railroad increased pressures on the western tribes. Their societies and cultures flourish within a larger population of descendants of immigrants (both voluntary and slave): African, Asian, Middle Eastern, and European peoples. Further information: Settlement of the Americas, Paleo-Indians, and Pre-Columbian era Map showing the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
After the colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States of America, President George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for United States citizenship.Their cultures were quite different from those of the agrarian, proto-industrial immigrants from western Eurasia.The differences in culture between the established native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations of each culture, caused a great deal of political tension and ethnic violence.and from there migrating along the Pacific Coast and into the interior.Linguists, anthropologists and archeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians.The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America.
The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.
The Oshara Tradition people lived from 5500 BCE to 600 CE.
The Southwestern Archaic Tradition was centered in north-central New Mexico, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley, southern Colorado, and southeastern Utah.
or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.
During the 19th century, the ideology of Manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, authorizing the government to relocate most Native Americans of the Deep South east of the Mississippi River from their homelands to accommodate European-American expansion from the United States.
Most of the written historical record about Native Americans was made by Europeans after their immigration to the Americas.